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  1. Holson

    Family Living Wage Act

  2. Holson

    Press Office of Robert Lawson (D-NE)

    LAWSON HITS THE GROUND RUNNING (Washington)-Newly reelected Congressman Robert Lawson (D-NE) wasted no time during the start of his 5th term to push for a pro-Nebraska agenda. The Congressman submitted four pieces of legislation in total today. The Social Security Home Care Act and Social Security Preventative Care extend Medicare coverage to essential health care services for our nation's seniors. By providing preventative care for seniors we can ensure higher quality of life and stop illnesses before they become more grave. By covering home health care services we can ensure that seniors can stay in their homes longer with a better quality of life. The Student Aid Readjustment Act expands Pells Grants making sure that more students can afford to go to college. The National Community College Technology Education Act sets up competitive grants for community colleges to help foster a focus on technology training for 21st century jobs skills. Speaking to the press Congressman Lawson stated; -01-
  3. IN THE UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Mr. Lawson (with thanks to Mr. Ford) for himself and others submits; A BILL To amend the Higher Education Act of 1965 to restore a more reasonable balance in student assistance between grants and loans, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE This Act may be cited as the `Student Aid Readjustment Act'. SEC. 2. EXPANSION OF PELL GRANT ENTITLEMENT. (a) INCREASE IN PELL GRANT MAXIMUM AMOUNTS- Section 411(b)(2)(A) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 is amended by striking out clauses (iii), (iv), and (v) and inserting in lieu thereof the following: `(iii) $4,800 for academic year 1989-1990, `(iv) $5,000 for academic year 1990-1991, and `(v) $5,200 for academic year 1991-1992,'. (b) RESTRICTION ON YEARS DURING WHICH STUDENT IS ELIGIBLE FOR PELL GRANTS- Section 411(c)(1) of such Act is amended to read as follows: `(c) PERIOD OF ELIGIBILITY FOR GRANTS- (1) The period during which a student may receive basic grants shall be the full-time equivalent of the period required for the completion of the first 2 academic years of the undergraduate baccalaureate course of study being pursued by that student at the institution at which the student is in attendance.'. (c) ENTITLEMENT-BASED ALLOCATION SYSTEM- (1) AMENDMENT- Section 411(g) of such Act is amended to read as follows: `(g) REIMBURSEMENT OF INSTITUTIONAL ADVANCES REQUIRED- (1) Each institution of higher education which has an agreement with the Secretary under paragraph (3) of this subsection-- `(A) shall make awards to its eligible students in the full amount to which such student is entitled under this subpart; `(B) shall, except as provided in paragraph (5), credit the amounts of such awards toward the tuition, fees, room and board, and other expenses incurred by the eligible student; and `(C) shall submit vouchers for reimbursement of such awards at such time, in such form, and containing or accompanied by such information as the Secretary may require by regulation. `(2) The Secretary shall reimburse each institution submitting a proper voucher under paragraph (1)(C) for the full amount of the awards credited by such institution to eligible students as required by paragraph (1)(B). `(3) Each institution desiring to provide grants under this subpart to its eligible students shall enter into an agreement with the Secretary for purposes of this subsection. Such agreement shall-- `(A) specify the conditions with which the institution must comply to obtain reimbursements under this subsection; `(B) specify the obligations of the Secretary with respect to such reimbursements; and `(C) contain such additional terms and conditions as the Secretary may require by regulation. `(4) An institution which-- `(A) has entered into an agreement with the Secretary under paragraph (3), `(B) has awarded grants to eligible students in accordance with this subpart, and `(C) credited such awards in accordance with paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection, shall be deemed to have a contractual right against the United States to receive reimbursement according to the provisions of this subsection. Such reimbursements shall, for purposes of chapter 39 of title 31, United States Code, be considered to be payments made for the acquisition of services by contract with the Department of Education. `(5) In the case of a student who does not reside in institutionally owned or operated housing and whose basic grant exceeds the amount of the tuition and fees owed by that student, the institution shall pay such excess to such student in accordance with such procedures as may be prescribed by the Secretary. For purposes of paragraph (4)(C), any amounts so paid shall be treated as amounts credited in accordance with paragraph (1)(B), and may be used by such student to cover room, board, transportation, child care, books, and other costs of attendance.'. (2) CONFORMING AMENDMENTS- (A) Section 411(a) of such Act is amended-- (i) by inserting `in accordance with subsection (g)' after `pay to each eligible institution' in paragraph (1); `(ii) by striking `paragraph (2)' and inserting `subsection (b)'; (iii) by striking the last sentence of paragraph (1); and (iv) by striking `paragraph (1)' in paragraph (2) and inserting `subsection (g)'. (B) Section 411(b) of such Act is further amended by adding at the end thereof the following new paragraph: `(8) The amount of the basic grant to which a student is entitled under this subpart shall be determined only in accordance with the requirements of this subpart and notwithstanding any other provision of law heretofore or hereafter enacted, unless such other provision of law expressly refers to and expressly amends this subpart.'. (d) ELIMINATION OF PERCENTAGE-OF-COST-OF-ATTENDANCE LIMITATION- Section 411(b) of such Act is further amended-- (1) by striking paragraph (3); and (2) by redesignating paragraphs (4) through (8) as paragraph (3) through (7), respectively. SEC. 3. ELIMINATION OF LOAN ELIGIBILITY FOR FIRST 2 ACADEMIC YEARS OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDY; INCREASE IN LIMITS FOR SUCCEEDING YEARS. (a) FISL PROGRAM- Sections 425(a)(1)(A) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 is amended to read as follows: `(1) ANNUAL LIMITS; INELIGIBILITY OF FIRST AND SECOND YEAR STUDENTS- (A) The total of loans made to a student in any academic year or its equivalent (as determined by the Secretary) which may be covered by Federal loan insurance under this part may not exceed (i) $8,000 in the case of a student who has successfully completed the first and second years of a program of undergraduate education, but who is not a graduate or professional student (as defined in regulations of the Secretary), or (ii) $8,000 in the case of such a graduate or professional student. Loans made to a student who has not successfully completed the first and second years of a program of undergraduate education may not be covered by Federal loan insurance under this part.'. (b) GSL PROGRAM- Section 428(b)(1) of such Act is amended-- (1) in subparagraph (A), by striking out clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) and inserting the following: `(i) $8,000 in the case of a student who has successfully completed the first and second years of a program of undergraduate education but who is not a graduate or professional student (as defined in regulations of the Secretary); and `(ii) $8,000 in the case of such a graduate or professional student;'; (2) by striking out subparagraph (C) and inserting the following: `(C) authorizes the insurance of loans to any individual who has successfully completed the first and second years of a program of undergraduate education during any of at least 4 succeeding academic years or their equivalent (as determined under regulations of the Secretary), but does not authorize the insurance of loans to any individual who has not successfully completed such first and second years;'. (c) SUPPLEMENTAL LOANS FOR STUDENTS- Section 428A(b)(1) of such Act is amended to read as follows: `(1) ANNUAL LIMIT- Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), the maximum amount a student who has successfully completed the first and second years of a program of undergraduate education may borrow in any succeeding academic year or its equivalent (as defined by regulation by the Secretary) is $8,000. A student who has not successfully completed such first and second years may not borrow any amount under this section.'. (d) PLUS LOANS- Section 428B(b)(1) of such Act is amended to read as follows: `(1) ANNUAL LIMIT- Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3), the maximum amount parents may borrow for one student who has successfully completed the first and second years of a program of undergraduate education in any succeeding academic year or its equivalent (as defined by regulation by the Secretary) is $8,000. Parents may not borrow any amount under this section for a student who has not successfully completed such first and second years.'. SEC. 4. ADJUSTMENT TO NDSL LOAN LIMITS. Section 464(a)(2) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1087dd(a)(2)) is amended-- (1) by inserting `and' at the end of subparagraph (A); and (2) by striking out subparagraphs (B) and (C) and inserting the following: `(B) $9,000 in the case of any other student, except that the amount loaned for any one academic year may not exceed $4,500.'. SEC. 5. EFFECTIVE DATES. The amendments made by this Act shall apply to grants and loans made to cover the costs of instruction for periods of enrollment beginning on or after July 1, 1989.
  4. IN THE UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES MR. Lawson (with thanks to Mr. Ford) for himself and others submits; A BILL To amend the Higher Education Act of 1965 to restore a more reasonable balance in student assistance between grants SEC. 2. EXPANSION OF PELL GRANT ENTITLEMENT.SEC. 3. ELIMINATION OF LOAN ELIGIBILITY FOR FIRST 2 ACADEMIC YEARS OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDY; INCREASE IN LIMITS FOR SUCCEEDING YEARS.SEC. 4. ADJUSTMENT TO NDSL LOAN LIMITS.SEC. 5. EFFECTIVE DATES.
  5. IN THE UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Mr. Lawson (with thanks to Mr. Hoagland) for himself and others submits: A BILL To establish a national technology education program, utilizing the resources of the Nation's two-year associate-degree-granting colleges to expand the pool of individuals in technology fields, to increase the productivity of the Nation's industries, and to improve the competitiveness of the United States in international trade, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE. This Act may be cited as the `National Community College Technology Education Act'. SEC. 2. STATEMENT OF FINDINGS. The Congress finds that-- (1) the United States is at a technological disadvantage in global economic competition because many competitors have workforces with stronger technology education; (2) the extent and quality of technological education have a direct bearing on the quality of the Nation's workforce, particularly in technology fields; (3) the United States has no national competitiveness strategy to develop and maintain the technologically educated workforce needed for self-sufficiency in technology fields, to improve productivity, to make industries competitive in international markets, and to revitalize declining industries; (4) there are shortages of technologically educated individuals to produce, operate, and service high technology equipment, systems, and processes; (5) many professions are increasingly requiring proficiency in technology fields, requiring technological education integrated with education in other fields; (6) many dislocated workers and unemployed adults who lack the education to meet industry's technological needs face uncertain career prospects; (7) the United States' increasing dependence on foreign producers for technology is undermining the United States' self-sufficiency, economic independence, and national security; (8) the Nation's workforce needs continual upgrading to produce, operate, and service technological systems to increase the productivity and profitability of industry; (9) the Nation's associate-degree-granting colleges have become American education's leading source of the technology education and short-cycle retraining which is required to meet industry needs and the demands of advancing technology; (10) a national strategy is needed to intensify collaboration among associate-degree-granting colleges, private industry and labor to develop technologically educated individuals needed for economic growth, industrial development, and reindustrialization; (11) national security can be enhanced by technological education designed to produce individuals educated in technology fields and to increase national self-sufficiency in these fields; and (12) a national technology education program will give men and women from all backgrounds more opportunities to gain competencies and knowledge consistent with the needs of the workplace. SEC. 3. PURPOSE. It is the purpose of this Act to establish a national technology education program in the Nation's associate-degree-granting colleges, with matching non-Federal funds, to-- (1) expand the workforce needed to make the Nation self-sufficient in technology fields, to increase the productivity of our Nation's industries, to improve the competitiveness of the United States in international trade, and to increase the Nation's national security; (2) give individuals technological knowledge and skills to perform in a wide range of professions; (3) prepare individuals, retrain individuals whose skills need updating, and upgrade employed individuals in technological fields; and (4) provide an educated workforce capable of understanding, producing and operating technology needed to modernize the Nation's industrial complex and to revitalize the Nation's economy. SEC. 4. NATIONAL TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM. (a) The Director of the National Science Foundation (hereafter in this Act referred to as the `Director') shall, in accordance with section 6 and the other provisions of this Act, carry out a technology education program under which accredited associate-degree-granting colleges, using matching non-Federal funds, will provide education in technology fields. (b) In carrying out the national technology education program, the Director shall-- (1) award grants on a competitive basis to accredited associate-degree-granting colleges which demonstrate the ability to provide technology education; and (2) establish and maintain, at the National Science Foundation or by contract, a readily accessible inventory of technology education programs which are serving public and private employers and addressing the changing workforce demands of technology. (c) Each college awarded a grant shall provide an associate degree education program in designated technology fields in accordance with the provisions of this Act. (d) No grant awarded under this section shall exceed $500,000 per year. (e) To ensure that the national technology education program is consistent with the needs of employers, the Director shall appoint a 15-member National Advisory Council on Technology Education, which shall have the responsibility of advising the Director on the goals and implementation of the program, reviewing the effectiveness of the program, and reporting annually to the Director and the Congress. The Council shall include representatives of industry, labor, associate-degree-granting colleges, the military, secondary education, and economic development organizations. The chairperson of the Council shall rotate annually shall be selected by the members from among the members. (f) The Council and the Director shall prepare and submit to the National Science Foundation, and directly to the Congress without review by the National Science Foundation or the Office of Management and Budget, an annual report on the national technology education program, together with-- (1) a review and evaluation of the effectiveness of the program; (2) a list of the associate-degree-granting college programs identified by the required inventory; (3) a recommendation on the merit and feasibility of expanding the program; and (4) such other recommendations, including recommendations for legislation, as the Council and the Director deem necessary. (g) In carrying out the duties imposed by this section, the Director shall consult, cooperate, and coordinate with the programs and policies of the Department of Commerce and other relevant Federal agencies including the Departments of Labor, Education, and Defense. SEC. 5. SPECIAL EMPHASES. The national technology education program shall give emphasis to-- (1) education training programs described in section 4(c) which-- (A) include flexibility in scheduling in order to accommodate working people and parents; and (B) take steps to meet the adaptive and educational needs of the disabled; (2) collaborative programs with local employers; (3) attracting men and women to the program who are in need of retraining or upgrading in order to retain their jobs, or who are unemployed, especially workers dislocated by plant closings and technological change, and persons who have recently completed high school or who left high school prior to graduation; and (4) developing and strengthening partnerships in mathematics and science education with secondary schools in the community served by the college. The Director shall award grants to develop cooperative technology education demonstration programs between associate-degree-granting colleges and the military to exchange instructors, instructional materials, educational methods, technology, and other expertise. SEC. 6. USE OF FUNDS. Funds appropriated to carry out this Act shall be used-- (1) to establish, strengthen, and expand under section 4 the technology education capabilities of associate-degree-granting colleges, including-- (A) the development of associate degree and training programs in technology by accredited associate-degree-granting colleges; (B) the development in such colleges of faculty and instructors, both full- and part-time, in technology fields; (C) the establishment of innovative partnership arrangements among associate-degree-granting colleges, the private sector, and the government to enhance the exchange of technical and scientific personnel, including programs providing faculty opportunities to have short-term assignments with industry; (D) the development of cooperative technology programs with business, industry, labor, the military, and government; (E) the purchase or lease of state-of-the-art technology essential to education programs designed to prepare and upgrade individuals in technology fields; (F) the stimulation of private sector participation in technology education programs in associate-degree-granting colleges through the sharing of program costs, equipment loans and donations, and the cooperative use of laboratories, plants, and other facilities as education sites and to provide relevant state-of-the-art work experience opportunities for students enrolled in such programs; and (G) the development and dissemination of instructional materials in support of technology education programs in degree-granting colleges; and (2) to make grants to establish the partnerships described in section 4. SEC. 7. DEFINITIONS. For purposes of this Act-- (1) the term `technology' includes activities necessary to accomplish the modernization, miniaturization, integration, and computerization of electronic, hydraulic, pneumatic, laser, nuclear, chemical, telecommunication, and other technological applications to enhance productivity improvements in manufacturing, communication, transportation, commercial, military, scientific, and other economic and national security activities; (2) the term `associate-degree-granting college' means a postsecondary educational institution that has authority to award an associate degree or comparable technical certificate and has the mission of offering comprehensive education and training services to meet the needs of a prescribed community, including a two-year junior college, technical institute, or other postsecondary institution offering comprehensive associate-degree programs in technical fields; and (3) the term `technology education' means providing the knowledge, technical skills, and understanding of the use and application of technology to solve practical problems and extend human capabilities. SEC. 8. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS. There are authorized to be appropriated $30,000,000 for fiscal year 1988 and $40,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1989 and 1990 to carry out this Act.
  6. IN THE UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Mr. Lawson (with thanks to Mr. Hoagland) for himself and others submits: A BILL To amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to extend coverage of home health services under the medicare program. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE This bill shall be cited and known as the "Social Security Home Care Act". SEC 2. EXTENDING COVERAGE OF HOME HEALTH SERVICES UNDER THE MEDICARE PROGRAM. (a) IN GENERAL- Section 1861(m) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395x(m)) is amended by adding at the end the following new sentence: `For purposes of paragraphs (1) and (4) and sections 1814(a)(2)(C) and 1835(a)(2)(A), nursing care and home health aide services shall be considered to be provided or needed on an `intermittent' basis if they are provided or needed less than 7 days each week and, in the case they are provided or needed for 7 days each week, if they are provided or needed for a period of up to 40 consecutive days.'. (b) EFFECTIVE DATE- The amendment made by subsection (a) shall apply to services furnished in cases of initial periods of home health services beginning on or after January 1, 1988. SEC. 2. FINANCING THROUGH INCREASE IN DOLLAR LIMITATION ON AMOUNT OF WAGES SUBJECT TO HOSPITAL INSURANCE TAX. Section 3121(x)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is amended-- (1) in subparagraph (A), by striking `and' at the end; (2) in subparagraph (B)-- (A) by striking `for any calendar year' and all that follows through `preceding year' and inserting `for calendar year 1989, the applicable contribution base for calendar year 1988', and (B) by striking the period at the end and inserting a comma; and (3) by adding at the end the following new subparagraphs: `(C) for calendar year 1990, the applicable contribution base for calendar year 1989 increased by $5,000 and adjusted in the same manner as is used in adjusting the contribution and benefit base under section 230(b) of the Social Security Act, and `(D) for any calendar year after 1990, the applicable contribution base for the preceding year adjusted in the same manner as is used in adjusting the contribution and benefit base under section 230(b) of the Social Security Act.'.
  7. IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Mr. Lawson (with thanks to Mr. Hoagland) for himself and others submits: A BILL To amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to provide for coverage of annual preventive examinations under part B of the medicare program. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE This bill shall be known and cited as the "Social Security Preventative Care Act". SEC 2. MEDICARE COVERAGE OF PREVENTIVE EXAMINATIONS. (a) In General.--Section 1861(s)(2) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395x(s)(2)) is amended-- (1) by striking ``and'' at the end of subparagraph (O); (2) by striking the semicolon at the end of subparagraph (P) and inserting ``; and''; and (3) by adding at the end the following new subparagraph: ``(Q) annual preventive examinations, together with services and supplies furnished as an incident to the examination that are commonly furnished as an incident to such an examination and are commonly furnished without charge or included in the bill for the examination;''. (b) Conforming Amendments.--Section 1862(a) of such Act (42 U.S.C. 1395y(a)) is amended-- (1) in paragraph (1)-- (A) in subparagraph (E), by striking ``and'' at the end, (B) in subparagraph (F), by striking the semicolon at the end and inserting ``, and'', and (C) by adding at the end the following new subparagraph: ``(G) in the case of a preventive examination, which is performed within 11 months following the month in which a previous preventive examination was performed;''; and (2) in paragraph (7), by striking ``routine physical checkups,''. SEC. 3. EFFECTIVE DATE. The amendments made by section 1 shall apply to services furnished on or after January 1, 1988.
  8. Official Voting Record of Congressman Robert Lawson AYE: NAY: PRESENT: COSPONSOR: Fighting Childhood Poverty Act Family Living Wage Act SPONSOR: Social Security Preventative Care Act Social Security Home Care Act National Community College Technology Education Act Student Aid Readjustment Act
  9. Official Press Office of Robert Lawson Congressman for Nebraska's 2nd District
  10. Holson

    Alternate Presidents Game

    Ford's Second Term Gerald Ford had finally won the office that he had held for over two years as an unelected caretaker. Now the American people had seen fit to bestow upon him the highest office in the land. Election Night 1976 has the highlight of Gerald Ford's life. It would also be the last high moment of his presidency. Buffeted by inflation, an oil crisis, and eventually angry Iranian ayatollahs Ford's term in the White House would be tumultuous and heart breaking for him. He would later be quoted by an aide in a tell all book published in the 1990s that "winning the White House was the worst thing to ever happen". Domestic Front Ford was elected during a period of stagflation; inflation was skyrocketing while unemployment refused to budge downwards. The economy brightened enough in 1976 to help push Ford over the finish line. But in 1977 it began to trend downward. Inflation would hit 12% in 1978. Ford attempted to rein in government spending through a serious of budgets that slashed government spending, except military, by at least the rate of inflation. However, Congressional Democrats, many of them holdovers from the Great Society days, were not interested in cutting the budgets for what they deemed to be essential programs. Ford and Democrats fought over every budget and eventually Ford had to capitulate, especially after the 1978 midterms when Democrats won a veto proof majority in both houses of Congress. Eventually Ford, stymied by Congress, would appoint Paul Volcker as Fed Chair understanding that he would adopt a tight money policy that would eventually bring down inflation. This led to a race against time for Ford to buttress the economy up enough before tight money sucked away any forward moment he had. At the same time employment inched upwards putting millions of Americans out of work. One area where Ford was able to work with Democrats was in a joint tax cut bill for the middle class. The idea was that by cutting taxes middle class buyers would fuel an economic boom. Ford wanted a larger tax cut, but settled in 1978 for a moderate one pushed by Speaker Tip O'Neill. However, the Speaker knew that politics was politics and so he gave Ford a sop in a small tax cut for businesses. Ford was able to credit the uptick in the economy in 1978 as a part of this deal. However, given his failure to bring Congress along earlier in the term the credit was largely given to Congress for the economic upswing in 1978-1979. Ford was ultimately stymied on the domestic front by a series of foreign policy problems. Foreign Front Israel was feeling hemmed in by its Arab neighbors. However, in the 1970s there was a very real chance for peace between Israel and it's largest neighbor Egypt. However, it would be a missed opportunity. Ford invited Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin to Camp David in 1977 in an attempt to build off of the Sinai Interim Agreement. However, Ford's threat to "reassess" American support for Israel during his first term continued to poison the well between him and Prime Minister Rabin. Rabin wanted assurances that the United States would support Israel's right to "defensible borders". Ford saw this as an attempt at Israeli irredentism and strongly encouraged Sadat to demand a return to the 1967 borders as a pre condition for a peace agreement. When Rabin found out that Ford was feeding Sadat lines he became irate and accused the President of tipping the scales. Ford backed off and said that all he really wanted to true peace in the Middle East. This brought Rabin around, but while he had been away an opposition newspaper found out the Rabin still had a bank account in the U.S. from his days as Israeli ambassador. This was in direct contravention with Israeli law. Overnight Rabin's government lost a vote of no confidence and Rabin would resign as Prime Minister. His Labour party would lose the election to the more hardliner Likud Party led by Menachem Begin, and Ford saw no possibility of negotiating a peace between the prickly Begin and Sadat. The Camp David talks would go down in foreign policy lore as arguably the single greatest missed opportunity as Middle East peace. In 1977 Panama began making increasing threats to the American controlled Panama Canal. The Panamanians saw American ownership and intervention as a direct assault on their sovereignty and General Omar Torrijos was able to focus general unrest away from his undemocratic regime and towards the Americans. Ford sent Secretary of State Kissinger to negotiate a new treaty that eventually ceded control of the Panama Canal back to Panama in 2003, 100 years after America began work. Additionally America would have the right to intervene if the security of passage in the canal was threatened. Torrijos was more than willing to go along with this knowing that the substantial toll fees would be flowing into his country's coffers, and then, coincidentally, his. The Panamanian Congress rushed through approval after the signing ceremony in the Rose Garden in May of 1978. However, the U.S. Senate was far less receptive. Congressional conservatives saw the Canal and the Canal zone as American property. Vice President Baker proved critical to securing the votes needed to get passage. He was able to persuade, pigeonhole, or maneuver his former colleagues into supporting the treaty. In fact, Baker was so successful that most Senators referred to it as the Torrijos-Baker Treaty, rather than the Torrijos-Ford Treaty. Ford took the personal humiliation to gain a political victory. However, conservatives would notch this as a another sin by the President against true Republicanism. In 1979 the crisis that effectively ended Ford's presidency happened, the Iranian Revolution. The dictatorial regime of the Iranian Shah had not kept pace with the young, increasingly unemployed populace of Iran. While they were some of the best educated people in the world they had little opportunity to use their education to better themselves or the economic situation. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini was able to use this unrest to explode the nation. Protests, sponsored by Khomeini, grew over the summer of 1979. The Shah was increasingly indecisive. At first he attempted to meet the demands of the protesters by increasing government subsidies and university placements. However, as the protests continued and grew larger the Shah began ordering SAVAK and Army intelligence units to begin rounding up and disappearing leaders. This only turned the protests violent which pushed the Shah away from ordering a full scale military crackdown which may have saved his regime. He allowed Khomeini to return in October. This, however, did not cease the protests, but instead turned them into something new. Khomeini began demanding that the Shah step aside and that an Islamic Republic be established. The Shah refused initially, but as the protesters became more and more violent he was eventually forced out in November and fled to the United States. Protesters learned of this and began attacking the American Embassy in April 1979 taking 55 hostages. This surprised even Khomeini, but with hostages now taken Khomeini played along as part of the plan to punish the Devil who backed the Shah, the United States. Ford was irate and almost ordered an immediate attack upon Iran. Vice President Baker and Secretary of State Kissinger talked him down. Eventually a covert operation was planned to rescue the hostages. However, Operation Freedom was a failure leading to the deaths of 13 Navy SEALs when their helicopters ran into an unplanned sandstorm. Ford's popularity plummeted. Secret negotiations began which would eventually free to hostages on January 21st, 1981 over a year and a half after they were taken. The fall of the Iranian monarchy sent the world oil supply into a tailspin while demand immediately shot up in reaction to the crisis. All of the sudden gas lines became an common occurrence across the United States. Waiting two-three hours every other day to put a quarter of a tank of gas in your car became the symbol of America in 1979 and 1980. In 1980 this frustration boiled over and in many places across the U.S. Ford was burned in effigy over the energy crisis. To top it all off in 1980 the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan to prop up a friendly government. The CIA, led by George H.W. Bush, was completely blind sided and so was Ford. It continued to play into the narrative of a Presidency careening for crisis to crisis. Ford was eventually able to pass sanctions through Congress in response to the Soviet Union's aggression, but it was seen as a weak kneed response. 1980 Election President Ford could not run for another term given the 22nd Amendment, and truly did not want another term even if he could have run. However, Vice President Howard Baker entered the field essentially as a proxy for the President. However, the Vice President did not have the field to himself. Former California Governor Ronald Reagan once again threw his hat into the ring as did former Texas Governor John Connally, Congressmen Jack Kemp, John Anderson, and Phil Crane and Senators Bob Dole and Larry Pressler. It was a raucous race with all sides accusing the other of not being sufficiently Republican. Reagan's attacks were particularly devastating as he asked Republican party members if the "party was better off than it was 4 years ago?" However, Reagan was seen by too many as too old and too Barry Goldwaterish. Eventually Vice President Baker was able to eke out an win and as a sop to the conservatives nominated Bob Dole as Vice President. The Democrats had an equally large field. 1976 Vice Presidential nominee John Glenn was the frontrunner, but Senators Gary Hart, Walter Mondale, Birch Bayh, Lloyd Bentsen, Congressmen Morris Udall and Governors Jerry Brown and Terry Sanford all threw their hats into the ring as well. Glenn had offended no one in 1976, but the party faithful knew that 1980 was their best chance to end 12 years of Republican rule. Senator Hart, a relative unknown was able to use his charisma, charm, and honesty to win primaries across the United States starting with Iowa. He essentially had the race sewn up by March. Knowing that he was a young liberal he chose Senator Lloyd Bentsen of Texas as his running mate and did not discourage the Kennedyesque connections that were drawn. The Hart/Bentsen ticket started out 10 points ahead in the opinion polls and they held that lead through out the campaign. Ford essentially stayed put in the White House knowing that he was toxic on the campaign trail. Baker and Dole held their own in the debates and the polls tightened somewhat but on election day Hart/Bentsen romped winning 311-217.
  11. Robert Lawson Name: Robert Francis Lawson Avatar: Al Gore Date of Birth: October 26th, 1946 Place of Birth: Omaha, Nebraska Residence: Omaha, Nebraska Party: Democratic Faction: Establishment Religion: Episcopalian Family Info Father: John Philip Lawson (b. 1919) Mother: Margaret Anne Lawson nee Hamilton (b. 1921 Siblings: - Zachary (b. 1948) - Gregory (b. 1950) Wife: Laura Lawson nee Gregs (b. 1948, m. 1972) Children: - Andrew (b. 1974) - Debra (b. 1976)  Educational Info University of Nebraska, Lincoln – J.D. (1970) University of Nebraska, Lincoln– B.A. (1967) Central High School (1963) Occupational History U.S. Representative for Nebraska's 2nd Congressional District (1977-present) Associate Attorney – Pascher, Littleton, and Humble (1974-1977) Political Aide-J. James Exon Administration (1971-1974)
  12. Holson

    The American Monarchy

    King George Marshall (1950-1956) [Crowned Republic Period] Fifth Presidency of Henry A. Wallace (1950-54) [133 Royalists, 117 Federalists] President Henry Wallace was arguably the most powerful man in America. King George arguably the weakest. A political fight over guns or butter had ended with the American people firmly voting for luxury, peace, and prosperity. King George was shaken by the results and essentially retired to Georgetown Palace only to be seen at a few, extremely friendly events. President Wallace continued to push his progressive agenda especially as a mild recession hit in late 1950. The Royalists were able to push through an expansion of the Royal Conservation Corp to extend to essentially a federal work guarantee. Only meant to kick in if more than 55 million Americans were unemployed the program went into effect automatically in March 1951 when 55.7 million Americans filed for unemployment. Soon the ranks of the unemployed were thinned planting trees, building roads, and working to create the National High Way System to better connect America’s cities. The program wrapped itself up in the spring of 1953 essentially showcasing Royalist forward thinking. An expansion of the National Health Insurance program to run essential hospitals in some areas was also met with Royalist accolades, though Federalists screamed about big government. However, not all was quiet on the domestic front. While Wallace was willing to ignore the rising Communist and Fascist threat; they were less willing to ignore the United States. Both understood that the United States represented a very real threat, but also a fertile opportunity. Both began working on establishing political fronts. The Communists found a foothold in the South and West where African Americans and Hispanic Americans were held under the heavy yoke of segregation and racism. Communist agents were able to revive the old Radical Reformist banner which began to mobilize minority voters and activists. Federalist state governments responded very aggressively with the use of water cannons, police dogs, and heavy force to break up Reformist rallies even though they were peaceful. This fed into Communist propaganda of exploited workers under oppressive American capitalism. Additional labor unrest in the North would later also be linked to the Communists. Fascists all tried their hand at electoral politics. Under the title of America First this new political party sought to exploit the unrest stirred up by Communists as well as play off the fear Americans had of entangling foreign alliances. America Firsters were especially vitriolic towards the U.N. especially after it passed a resolution at the wishes of U.K. Prime Minister Anthony Eden that condemned non-democratic governments. Wallace, Taft and others remained either naïve or ignorant of these new political threats. Wallace continued to offer platitudes of the political strength of America while Taft sought to co-opt the America Firsters. All this came to a head when Wallace sought to pass a Civil Rights bill that would have ended discrimination against minority voters, particularly in the South. Federalists saw this as a direct assault on state government and the power of the people. Radical Reformers, stoked by Communist fellow-travelers, argued that it did not go enough. Their argument was persuasive enough to peel off several liberal Royalists who wanted the bill to go further which led to Wallace losing the vote in 1953. Wallace lost all the political capital he had accumulated and staggered through until he resigned in 1954 leading to snap elections. Elections delivered a hung Congress. America Firsters gained 5 seats, mainly from the Federalists. Federalists picked up 5 seats from the Royalists while the Royalists disappeared in the South due to Radical Reformer victories. Final tally was Royalists 120, Federalists 117, America First 5, Radical Reformers 8. Suddenly King George was relevant again. He had watched the new Radicals and the America Firsters with a keen eye. He understood that they represented a significant threat to American democracy. He wanted neither of them to be involved in whatever government was formed. With the death of Taft in 1953 the Federalists had coalesced around Everrett Dirksen who was more moderate. The Royalists were shocked by the resignation of President Wallace. Their bench of leaders had atrophied significant with Wallace holding power for over 20 years. They finally settled on Joseph Kennedy Jr., a veteran and young up and comer from Massachusetts. King George begged the Federalists and Royalists to set aside their differences and host a “Grand Coalition” in order to combat the new threats. Neither side was particularly willing to agree. Eventually Kennedy was able to enter into an agreement with the Radical Reformers to support Royalist budgets and votes of confidence. King George was upset by kept biding his time. First Presidency of Joseph Kennedy Jr. (1954-1955) Kennedy sought to really, truly push for a Civil Rights bill in Congress. He was deeply touched by his war time experience working alongside African Americans. He firmly believed that the right to vote was sacred and should be given to every citizen regardless of color. The Radical Reformers had staked their political claim on a real bill with bite and so it appeared to be a done deal. However, foreign affairs would once again intervene. Communist leader Josef Stalin was killed by an errant artillery shell in his wartime office outside of Magnitogorsk. He was succeeded by Lavrentiy Beria, head of the NKVD. Beria had little time for political games which Stalin had been all too willing to entertain. Beria let it be known that all aligned political parties were to cease any government work and begin agitating for a direct takeover by the proletariat. The Radical Reformers immediately began advocating for an even more aggressive Civil Rights Bill that they knew would kill the bill among more conservative Royalists. President Kennedy tried and tried to bring the two parties to an agreement, but the Reformers were not willing to budge. Eventually they issued the ultimatum of either put a more aggressive bill on the floor or face a no confidence vote. Kennedy refused, and the Reformers withdrew their support in May of 1955 once again causing a snap election. At the same time a more severe bank crisis hit. America firsters began using fascist propaganda and began blaming Jewish bankers and an international cabal lead by the U.N. Without a real government in office unemployment jumped up significantly and the America First slogans began to sound more palatable to more people. The election of 1955 was ugly. Royalists had been in charge for 24 years and had simply become too complacent. The Federalists were still split between the isolationist and more moderate wings with Reformers and America Firsters more aggressively moving towards the ends of the spectrum. The final results were 100 Royalists, 95 Federalists, 30 American Firsters, 25 Radical Reformers. Once again King George begged the Royalists and the Federalists to join together in Grand Coalition. Dirksen was open and eventually Kennedy was brought on board with the understanding the Dirksen would serve as Vice President and Lord Chancellor of the Treasury and the Royalists would control the majority of the Cabinet. Second Presidency of Joseph Kennedy Jr. (1955-1956) Kennedy’s job was essentially to project stability. Given the instability of the political scene Kennedy began to align himself more closely with King George. Only 5 years after King George was cast out into the wilderness suddenly he was back in control. He was able to offer Kennedy’s government credibility and gravitas that the youthful Kennedy lacked personally. Kennedy would need all the help he could get. In 1956 Adolph Hitler, increasingly losing grip on reality, became obsessed with the looming threat of the United Nations. While his advisors attempted to convince him that the threat was not real Hitler could not be distracted. He began ordering the planning for a preemptive strike against United Nations forces stationed in Western Europe. While his generals tried to slow roll the planning by 1956 they could delay no longer. On the summer morning of May 8th, 1956 Nazi forces launched a massive attack against Paris, London, Antwerp, and other military targets. Jets, guided missiles rained down killing thousands in the first hour. This was followed up with aggressive armor maneuvers punching towards France’s northern coast. President Kennedy was sleeping when the attacks began. He immediately called Congress into session and asked the King George be present. Before the assembled Cabinet and Congress with the King in the galleries President Kennedy asked that a state of war be declared to exist between the United States and Germany. Vocal cries of affirmation rang through Congress, but through the raucous noise America Firsters could be heard screaming, “No, no, no”. Soon fighting broke out between members of Congress. Soon a gun was pulled by one of the America Firsters and shots rang out. No one on the floor was hurt before the Congress member was wrestled to the ground. But from the Royal Gallery the Queen could be heard weeping. President George Marshall had been shot dead. While he had been in political exile King George had made clear who he wanted to serve as his heir. He made sure that his staff knew and put it in writing to be given to the President upon the King’s death. As the nation mourned their king and prepared for war they also coronated their new king; Dwight Eisenhower, a little known Royal Army officer. King: Dwight Eisenhower (1956-) [Restored Monarchy Period] President: Joseph Kennedy Jr. Congress: Royalists- 100 Federalists- 90 America First- 30 Radical Reformers-25
  13. Holson

    The American Monarchy

    A million times yes.

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